Scientists have determined the relative times of appearance and disappearance of many kinds of organisms from the location of their fossils within the sedimentary rock layers.” (Glenco, 1994, pp. 714.) “The procession of life was never witnessed, it is inferred.
306-307.) “No paleontologist worthy of the name would ever date his fossils by the strata in which they are found. The vertical sequence of fossils is thought to represent a process because the enclosing rocks are interpreted as a process.
It is almost the first thing I teach my first-year students. al., : Biostratigraphy: Time Scales from Graphic and Quantitative Methods,” , 2004, p. The rocks do date the fossils, but the fossils date the rocks more accurately.
Ever since William Smith at the beginning of the 19th century, fossils have been and still are the best and most accurate method of dating and correlating the rocks in which they occur. 49.) “Are the authorities maintaining, on the one hand, that evolution is documented by geology and, on the other that geology is documented by evolution? Stratigraphy cannot avoid this kind of reasoning, if it insists on using only temporal concepts, because circularity is inherent in the derivation of time scales.” (O’Rourke, J.
The periods of relative quiet contribute only a small part of the record.
…The charge that the construction of the geologic scale involves circularity has a certain amount of validity….
Apart from very ‘modern’ examples, which are really archaeology, I can think of no cases of radioactive decay being used to date fossils.” (Ager, Derek V., “Fossil Frustrations,” , vol. 425.) “The larger part of the Phanerozoic time scale…relies on a construction where stages are first scaled ‘geologically’ with biostratigraphic compositing techniques, and then stretched in linear time using key radiometric dates. E., “Pragmatism Versus Materialism in Stratigraphy,”, vol. 53) “A great deal has changed, however, and contemporary geologists and paleontologists now generally accept catastrophe as a ‘way of life’ although they may avoid the word catastrophe.
In fact, many geologists now see rare, short-lived events as being the principal contributors to geologic sequences….
The geologist has never bothered to think of a good reply, feeling that explanations are not worth the trouble as long as the work brings results.This failure leaves the method vulnerable to circularity.” (Stanley, Steven M., Warron O.Addicott, and Kiyotaka Chinzei, “Lyellian Curves in Paleontology: Possibilities and Limitations,”, vol. 422.) “Often, the layers of rock can be dated by the types of fossils they contain….10, 2010.) “In about 1830, Charles Lyell, Paul Deshayes, and Heinrich George Bronn independently developed a biostratigraphic technique [geologic column] for dating Cenozoic deposits based on relative proportions of living and extinct species of fossil mollusks….
Strangely, little effort has been made to test this assumption.To put it another way, ‘good’ dates are those that agree with the field data.” (Mc Kee, B., , 1972, p.